The significance of automation and robots in every manufacturing industries is increasing. Industrial robots have replaced individuals inside a wide selection of industries. Robots beat humans in jobs that want precision, speed, endurance and reliability. Robots safely perform dirty and dangerous jobs. Traditional manufacturing robotic applications include material handling (pick make), assembling, painting, welding, packaging, palletizing, product inspection and testing. Industrial robots are widely-used in a diverse variety of industries including automotive, electronics, medical, food production, biotech, pharmaceutical and machinery.

The ISO concise explaination a manipulating industrial robot is “an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator”. In accordance with the definition it is usually fixed available or mobile to use in industrial automation applications. These industrial robots are programmable in three or more axes. These are multi-functional items that may be custom-built and developed to perform various operations.

The main aspects of industrial robots is they could be programmed to suit industry specific requirements and will work continuously for many years, consistently meeting high manufacturing quality standards. The economic life span of an industrial robot is concerning 12-16 years. Due to their persistent accuracy industrial robots are becoming an indispensable a part of manufacturing.

Industrial robots are categorized into different categories according to their mechanical structure. The major types of industrial robots are:

Gantry (Cartesian) Robot: They’re stationary robots having three aspects of motion. They work from an overhead grid having a rectangular work envelope. They are mainly used to perform ‘pick and place’ actions. Gantry robots have their axes over the work driving them to also ideal for dispensing applications.
SCARA Robots: (Selectively Compliant Articulated Robot Arm) These robots have 4 axes of movement. They move within an x-y-z coordinated circular work envelope. They are utilized for factory automation requiring pick and put work, application and assembly operations and handling machine tools.
Articulated robots: An articulated robot has rotary joints. It may have from two to 10 or even more interactive joints. Articulated robots are well worthy of welding, painting and assembly.

Basic industrial robot designs might be customized with the help of different peripherals. End effectors, optical systems, and motion controllers are crucial add-ons. End effectors are the end-of-arm-tooling (EOAT) attached with robotic arms. Grippers or wrenches which might be employed to move or assemble parts are samples of end effectors. End effectors are created and accustomed to sense and communicate with the external environment. The final effectors’ design is determined by the approval requirements with the specific industry. Machine Vision systems are robotic optical systems. These are built-on digital input/output devices and computer networks utilized to control other manufacturing equipment such as robotic arms. Machine vision is used for that inspection of product which for example semiconductor chips. Motion controllers are employed to move robots and position stages smoothly and accurately with sub-micron repeatability.

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